OSHA Guide – Cranes and Derricks in Construction

Section 1433 – Design, Construction and Testing

For equipment to be used safely, it must be built with appropriate safety features and maintained in a safe condition. Although manufacturers are not directly subject to this standard, crane users rely on manufacturers to see that the equipment is built and tested so that it is safe when it leaves the manufacturer. Therefore, with the exceptions discussed below, the crane user’s obligations under this section are met where the employer can refer to documentation from the manufacturer showing that the equipment has been designed, constructed and tested in accord with this section and the equipment has not changed since it was manufactured (except in accord with section 1434 – equipment modifications).

You cannot rely on manufacturer documentation to comply with the following requirements:

Rated Capacity and Related Information

The following information must be available in the cab:

  • A complete range of the manufacturer’s equipment rated capacities
  • A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load chart. (The work area figure and load chart must clearly indicate the areas where no load is to be handled)
  • Recommended reeving for the hoist lines
  • Recommended parts of hoist reeving, size, and type of wire rope for various equipment loads.
  • Recommended boom hoist reeving diagram, where applicable; size, type and length of wire rope.
  • Tire pressure (where applicable)
  • Caution or warnings relative to limitations on equipment and operating procedures, including an indication of the least stable direction
  • Position of the gantry and requirements for intermediate boom suspension (where applicable)
  • Instructions for boom erection and conditions under which the boom, or boom and jib combinations, may be raised or lowered
  • Whether the hoist holding mechanism is automatically or manually controlled, whether free fall is available, or any combination of these
  • The maximum telescopic travel length of each boom telescopic section
  • Whether sections are telescoped manually or with power
  • The sequence and procedure for extending and retracting the telescopic boom section
  • Maximum loads permitted during the boom extending operation, and any limiting conditions or cautions
  • Hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the manufacturer

Miscellaneous Requirements

  • Load hooks (including latched and unlatched types), ball assemblies, and load blocks must be of sufficient weight to overhaul the line from the highest hook position for boom or boom and jib lengths and the number of parts of the line in use
  • Hook and ball assemblies and load blocks must be marked with their rated capacity and weight
  • Hooks must be equipped with latches, except where a qualified person has determined that it is safer to hoist and place the load without latches (or with the latches removed/tied-back), and routes for the loads are pre-planned to ensure that no employee is required to work in the fall zone except for employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load
  • Posted warnings required by this standard as well as those originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer must be maintained in legible condition
  • An accessible fire extinguisher must be on the equipment